Kw-logo-smaller

Kidzworld Help

Homework Help
Need help with math, geography, science or any other school work? Post your questions here! Or maybe you are an expert. Share you knowledge here.

Scientific Methods and Meaning

Posted By:
AngelBlues
AngelBlues
Member since:
February, 2011
StarStarStarStar
Status: Offline
Posts: 163
Please help me!! I researched it in google but I can't find it. What are the different kinds of Scientific methods?(with meaning) Observation, Measuring, Hypothesis,... and I don't know the next...

I'm nobody.


Scientific Methods and Meaning

Posted By:
AngelBlues
AngelBlues
Member since:
February, 2011
StarStarStarStar
Status: Offline
Posts: 163
Please help me!!

I'm nobody.


Scientific Methods and Meaning

Posted By:
AngelBlues
AngelBlues
Member since:
February, 2011
StarStarStarStar
Status: Offline
Posts: 163
Anyone? Big Grin

I'm nobody.


Scientific Methods and Meaning

Posted By:
chippi Lock
chippi
Member since:
January, 2010
StarStarStarStarStar
Status: Offline
Posts: 10808
i can check it for u....wait Big Grin



Scientific Methods and Meaning

Posted By:
AngelBlues
AngelBlues
Member since:
February, 2011
StarStarStarStar
Status: Offline
Posts: 163

"chippi" wrote:

i can check it for u....wait Big Grin
Thank you very much, my sis! Big Grin

I'm nobody.


Scientific Methods and Meaning

Posted By:
chippi Lock
chippi
Member since:
January, 2010
StarStarStarStarStar
Status: Offline
Posts: 10808
no problem dear!



Scientific Methods and Meaning

Posted By:
chippi Lock
chippi
Member since:
January, 2010
StarStarStarStarStar
Status: Offline
Posts: 10808

"AngelBlues" wrote:

Please help me!! I researched it in google but I can't find it. What are the different kinds of Scientific methods?(with meaning) Observation, Measuring, Hypothesis,... and I don't know the next...
What Is the Scientific Method? The goals of psychological studies are to describe, explain, predict and perhaps influence mental processes or behavior. In order to do this, psychologists utilize the scientific method to conduct psychological research. The scientific method is a set of principles and procedures that are used by researchers to develop questions, collect data and reach conclusions. What are the goals of scientific research in psychology? Researchers seek not only to describe behaviors and explain why these behaviors occur; they also strive to create research that can be used to predict and even change human behavior. Key Terms to Know * Hypothesis: An educated guess about the possible relationship between two or more variables. * Variable: A factor or element that can change in observable and measurable ways. * Operational Definition: A full description of exactly how variables are defined, how they will be manipulated, and how they will be measured. Before a researcher can begin, they must choose a topic to study. Once an area of interest has been chosen, the researchers must then conduct a thorough review of the existing literature on the subject. This review will provide valuable information about what has already been learned about the topic and what questions remain to be answered. A literature review might involve looking at a considerable amount of written material from both books and academic journals dating back decades. The relevant information collected by the researcher will be presented in the introduction section of the final published results. This background material will also help the research with the first major step in conducting a psychology study—formulating a hypothesis. Step 1 – Forming a Testable Hypothesis Step 2 – Devise a Study and Collect Data Step 3 – Examine Data and Reach Conclusions Step 4 – Report the Findings of the Study



Scientific Methods and Meaning

Posted By:
chippi Lock
chippi
Member since:
January, 2010
StarStarStarStarStar
Status: Offline
Posts: 10808
Science Demands Evidence Sooner or later, the validity of scientific claims is settled by referring to observations of phenomena. Hence, scientists concentrate on getting accurate data. Such evidence is obtained by observations and measurements taken in situations that range from natural settings (such as a forest) to completely contrived ones (such as the laboratory). To make their observations, scientists use their own senses, instruments (such as microscopes) that enhance those senses, and instruments that tap characteristics quite different from what humans can sense (such as magnetic fields). Scientists observe passively (earthquakes, bird migrations), make collections (rocks, shells), and actively probe the world (as by boring into the earth's crust or administering experimental medicines). In some circumstances, scientists can control conditions deliberately and precisely to obtain their evidence. They may, for example, control the temperature, change the concentration of chemicals, or choose which organisms mate with which others. By varying just one condition at a time, they can hope to identify its exclusive effects on what happens, uncomplicated by changes in other conditions. Often, however, control of conditions may be impractical (as in studying stars), or unethical (as in studying people), or likely to distort the natural phenomena (as in studying wild animals in captivity). In such cases, observations have to be made over a sufficiently wide range of naturally occurring conditions to infer what the influence of various factors might be. Because of this reliance on evidence, great value is placed on the development of better instruments and techniques of observation, and the findings of any one investigator or group are usually checked by others. Science Is a Blend of Logic and Imagination Although all sorts of imagination and thought may be used in coming up with hypotheses and theories, sooner or later scientific arguments must conform to the principles of logical reasoning—that is, to testing the validity of arguments by applying certain criteria of inference, demonstration, and common sense. Scientists may often disagree about the value of a particular piece of evidence, or about the appropriateness of particular assumptions that are made—and therefore disagree about what conclusions are justified. But they tend to agree about the principles of logical reasoning that connect evidence and assumptions with conclusions. Scientists do not work only with data and well-developed theories. Often, they have only tentative hypotheses about the way things may be. Such hypotheses are widely used in science for choosing what data to pay attention to and what additional data to seek, and for guiding the interpretation of data. In fact, the process of formulating and testing hypotheses is one of the core activities of scientists. To be useful, a hypothesis should suggest what evidence would support it and what evidence would refute it. A hypothesis that cannot in principle be put to the test of evidence may be interesting, but it is not likely to be scientifically useful. The use of logic and the close examination of evidence are necessary but not usually sufficient for the advancement of science. Scientific concepts do not emerge automatically from data or from any amount of analysis alone. Inventing hypotheses or theories to imagine how the world works and then figuring out how they can be put to the test of reality is as creative as writing poetry, composing music, or designing skyscrapers. Sometimes discoveries in science are made unexpectedly, even by accident. But knowledge and creative insight are usually required to recognize the meaning of the unexpected. Aspects of data that have been ignored by one scientist may lead to new discoveries by another. Science Explains and Predicts Scientists strive to make sense of observations of phenomena by constructing explanations for them that use, or are consistent with, currently accepted scientific principles. Such explanations—theories—may be either sweeping or restricted, but they must be logically sound and incorporate a significant body of scientifically valid observations. The credibility of scientific theories often comes from their ability to show relationships among phenomena that previously seemed unrelated. The theory of moving continents, for example, has grown in credibility as it has shown relationships among such diverse phenomena as earthquakes, volcanoes, the match between types of fossils on different continents, the shapes of continents, and the contours of the ocean floors. The essence of science is validation by observation. But it is not enough for scientific theories to fit only the observations that are already known. Theories should also fit additional observations that were not used in formulating the theories in the first place; that is, theories should have predictive power. Demonstrating the predictive power of a theory does not necessarily require the prediction of events in the future. The predictions may be about evidence from the past that has not yet been found or studied. A theory about the origins of human beings, for example, can be tested by new discoveries of human-like fossil remains. This approach is clearly necessary for reconstructing the events in the history of the earth or of the life forms on it. It is also necessary for the study of processes that usually occur very slowly, such as the building of mountains or the aging of stars. Stars, for example, evolve more slowly than we can usually observe. Theories of the evolution of stars, however, may predict unsuspected relationships between features of starlight that can then be sought in existing collections of data about stars. Scientists Try to Identify and Avoid Bias When faced with a claim that something is true, scientists respond by asking what evidence supports it. But scientific evidence can be biased in how the data are interpreted, in the recording or reporting of the data, or even in the choice of what data to consider in the first place. Scientists' nationality, sex, ethnic origin, age, political convictions, and so on may incline them to look for or emphasize one or another kind of evidence or interpretation. For example, for many years the study of primates—by male scientists—focused on the competitive social behavior of males. Not until female scientists entered the field was the importance of female primates' community-building behavior recognized. Bias attributable to the investigator, the sample, the method, or the instrument may not be completely avoidable in every instance, but scientists want to know the possible sources of bias and how bias is likely to influence evidence. Scientists want, and are expected, to be as alert to possible bias in their own work as in that of other scientists, although such objectivity is not always achieved. One safeguard against undetected bias in an area of study is to have many different investigators or groups of investigators working in it. Science Is Not Authoritarian It is appropriate in science, as elsewhere, to turn to knowledgeable sources of information and opinion, usually people who specialize in relevant disciplines. But esteemed authorities have been wrong many times in the history of science. In the long run, no scientist, however famous or highly placed, is empowered to decide for other scientists what is true, for none are believed by other scientists to have special access to the truth. There are no preestablished conclusions that scientists must reach on the basis of their investigations. In the short run, new ideas that do not mesh well with mainstream ideas may encounter vigorous criticism, and scientists investigating such ideas may have difficulty obtaining support for their research. Indeed, challenges to new ideas are the legitimate business of science in building valid knowledge. Even the most prestigious scientists have occasionally refused to accept new theories despite there being enough accumulated evidence to convince others. In the long run, however, theories are judged by their results: When someone comes up with a new or improved version that explains more phenomena or answers more important questions than the previous version, the new one eventually takes its place. Top button



Scientific Methods and Meaning

Posted By:
AngelBlues
AngelBlues
Member since:
February, 2011
StarStarStarStar
Status: Offline
Posts: 163
Thanks for researching! But I asked it to my bff(she can't remember the scientific methods but she can give some examples of it) and she said that's wrong. But THANK YOU VERY MUCH FOR RESEARCHING! YOU'R MY BEST SISTER!! Big Grin

I'm nobody.


Scientific Methods and Meaning

Posted By:
chippi Lock
chippi
Member since:
January, 2010
StarStarStarStarStar
Status: Offline
Posts: 10808
aww....dear sis! Big Grin



play online games

Candy-100

A great online version of the famous Candy Crush. This is the best game launched...

1515_gl_kidzworld_100x100_jpg_fz

Intriguing planets, weird and wonderful characters; challenge friends and find a...

157262_(2)

When you go back to Candyland, you’ll wonder why you ever left in the first plac...

100x100_ra_logo_girl

Uncle George has left you his farm, but unfortunately it’s in pretty bad shape. ...

_thumb_100x100

Shoot blobs with different properies to merge yellow blobs. Your blobs can be re...

latest forum posts

The 9 millionth person to post a food wins!

Every 5th person claps!

the not impossible

New Chat for new users!

the not impossible

The 9 millionth person to post a food wins!

latest videos